This course will provide an exposition of the fundamental mechanisms of antibiotic action. The basic differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes that provide for specific antibiotic targets will be emphasized. Mechanisms of antibiotics will include those that affect cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism, membrane structure and function, nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA replication and other nucleic acid transactions, transcription, and protein synthesis, as well as novel mechanisms. For each biological mechanism, the biological process, for example protein synthesis, will be reviewed to provide a framework for understanding the role of the antibiotic. Classes of antibiotics will include, but are not limited to, b-lactams, b-lactamase inhibitors, glycopeptides, isoniazid, aminoglycosides, tetracylines, macrolides, lincomycin, streptogramins, oxazolidinones, fluoroquinolones, nitroimidazoles, rifamycins, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors, and polymyxins. Antibiotics from natural sources as well as synthetic antibiotics will be addressed. In addition, mechanisms by which microbes develop antibiotic resistance will be discussed.