Rat Lungworm

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6th International Workshop on Angiostrongylus and Angiostrongyliasis, Hilo, Hawaii, USA, January, 2020

Parasitology Volume 148 – Issue 2 – February 2021

Papers from or in collaboration with the Dr. Susan I. Jarvi Lab, University of Hawaii, Hilo, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy

Introduction to the Brief

In January 2020, Dr. Susan Jarvi, professor of Pharmacuetical Sciences at the University of Hawaii, Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, with help from her lab staff, hosted the 6th International Rat Lungworm Workshop in Hilo Hawaii. An international cohort of researchers, clinicians, and educators, who have been involved with Angiostrongylus cantonensis the rat lungworm, and neuroangiostrongyliasis, rat lungworm disease, were in attendance. Also, and for the first time, individuals who had contracted the disease and some of their caregivers were in attendance. The inclusion of victims of the disease was unique and allowed these individuals to hear presentations from these professionals, but possibly more importantly, it allowed those professionals in attendance to hear firsthand from victims who attested to the debilitating effects of the disease in Hawaii. These first hand accounts were powerful testimony to the need for continued research and public education for disease prevention.

These briefs are intended reading for the general public. They are a synopsis of the papers published in the special issue of Parasiology, Vol. 148 Issue 2, February 2021. They are written in a manner to be more reader-friendly for those who do not normally engage in reading or do not have access to scientific papers. We thank those who made this publication possible. We will continue in our research and education efforts to reduce disease incidence in Hawaii and we will continue to find avenues to share our results with the public.


2021 papers

  • {Open access} Follett, P., Hamilton, L., Tagami, Y., Kaluna, L., Jarvi, S., 2021. Phytosanitary irradiation using X-rays prevents reproduction in the semi-slug Parmarion martensi (Stylommatophora: Ariophantidae), a host of the human pathogenic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Rhabditida: Angiostrongylidae). Pest Management Science, ps.6735, http://doi.org/10.1002/ps.6735
  • {Open access} Jacob, J., Steel, A., Lin, Z., Berger, F., Zöeller, K., Jarvi, S., 2021. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Albendazole and Other Benzimidazole Anthelmintics for Rat Lungworm Disease (Neuroangiostrongyliasis): A Systematic Analysis of Clinical Reports and Animal Studies. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciab730, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab730
  • {Open access} Jarvi, S., Prociv, P. 2021. Editorial. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and neuroangiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease): 2020. Parasitology. 148(2): 129-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S003118202000236X
  • {View abstract} Niebuhr, C.N., Siers, S.R., Leinbach, I.L., Kaluna, L.M., Jarvi, S.I. 2021. Variation in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in definitive and intermediate hosts in Hawaii, a global hotspot of rat lungworm disease. Parasitology. 148:(2) 133-142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S003118202000164X
  • {Open access} Hamilton, L.J., Tagami, Y., Kaluna, L., Jacob, J., Jarvi, S.I., Follett, P. 2021. Demographics of the semi-slug Parmarion martensi, an intermediate host for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Hawaiʻi, during laboratory rearing. Parasitology. 148(2). 153-158.
  • {View abstract} Howe, K., Morgan Bernal, L., Kinslow Brewer, F., Millikan, D., Jarvi, S. 2021. A Hawaii public education programme for rat lungworm disease prevention. Parasitology. 148(2) 206-211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020001523
  • {View abstract} Steel, A., Jacob, J., Klasner, I., Howe, K., Jacquier, S.H., Pitt, W.C., Hollingsworth, R., Jarvi, S.I. 2021. In vitro comparison of treatments and commercially available solutions on mortality of Angiostrongylus cantonensis third-stage larvae. Parasitology. 148(2): 212-220. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32951629/
  • {View abstract} Jacob, J., Tan, G., Lange, I., Saeed, H., Date, A., Jarvi, S. 2021. In vitro efficacy of anthelmintics on Angiostrongylus cantonensis L3 larvae. Parasitology. 148(2): 240-250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020001146
  • {View abstract} Jarvi, S.I., Atkinson, E.S., Kaluna, L.M., Snook, K.A., Steel, A. 2021 Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA-EXO) and lateral flow assay (RPA-LFA) based on the ITS1 gene for the detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in gastropod intermediate hosts. Parasitology. 148(2): 251-258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182020001651
  • {Open access} Marahatta, S.P., Jacob, J., Jarvi, S., 2021. Morphometrics of third-stage larvae of the rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Hawaii. Pacific Agriculture and Natural Resources. 10: 5-10.
  • {Get brief} Sears, W.J., Qvarnstrom, Y., Dahlstrom, E., Snook, K., Kaluna, L., Balaz, V., Feckova, B., Slapeta, J., Modry, D., Jarvi, S., Nutman, T.B. 2021. AcanR3990 qPCR: a novel, highly sensitive bioinformatically-informed assay to detect Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciaa1791, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1791

2020 Papers

2019 Papers

  • {Open access} Howe, K., Kaluna, L. Lozano, A., Torres Fischer, B., Tagami, Y., McHugh, R., Jarvi, S. 2019. Water transmission potential of Angiostrongylus cantonensis: Larval viability and effectiveness of rainwater catchment sediment filters. Plos One. 14(4) https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209813
  • {View abstract} Jarvi, S.I., Jacob, J., Sugihara, R.T., Leinbach, I.L., Klasner, I.H., Kaluna, L.M., Snook, K.A., Howe, M.K, Jacquier, S.H., Lange, I., Atkinson, A.L., Deane, A.R., Niebuhr, C.N., Siers, S.R. 2019. Validation of a death assay for Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae (L3) using propidium iodide in a rat model (Rattus norvegicus). Parasitology 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182019000908
  • {View abstract} Niebuhr, C., Jarvi, S., Siers, S. 2019 A review of rat lungworm infection and recent data on its definitive hosts in Hawaii. Human-Wildlife Interactions. 13(2): 238-249. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdm_usdanwrc/2298/

2018 Papers

2017 Papers

2015 Papers

2013 Papers

2012 Papers

Resources: Some Noteworthy Papers

General Overview

Australia Case studies

U.S. Mainland Case studies

Hawaiʻi Case Studies


Diagnostics and Treatment

Antigen/Antibody/PCR Detection of A. Cantonensis


Water Transmission

Produce Production & Preparation